For the first scenario: There is no 'right' thing to do in this kind of situation. On one hand, I can change the path of the cart and save more people, but do I have the right to decide that 10 lives are worth more than 2 lives? On the other hand, if I keep the cart on the same path, I end up killing more people and saving less lives. Sitting here, right now, I tell myself that I would choose to let the cart continue along the same track, as I feel as if I'd be intervening in a situation that is already set in motion. I mean, those two people were lucky enough to be on the other path on that particular day, why should I be the one to affect that? But, I believe that if I was actually in this situation, I would choose to change the path, as I would not want to be the reason for 10 deaths over 2. So, in response to this scenario, I will go with changing the path.Let's say a cart has 2 paths, and either you can let the cart go down it's current path and kill 10 people, or you can change the cart of the path and kill 2 people. Personally, and i know some people will disagree with me, i'd change the path of the cart, because surely you want to ensure the best outcomes for as many people as possible.
If the scenario is changed to: You're a medical practitioner and a person is unconscious and may die, but if you take his organs out now, you can save 20 other people who would die if you didn't.
Modified Scenario: The first question is whether or not this person is my patient. If they are my patient, then my duty is to this person and preserving their life, before the 20 people that I will assume aren't. Even if they are my patients, I will have to find other ways to treat them, that aren't at the expense of another one of my patients. If this person is not my patient, I would still choose to save him, or at least try, that way if he does die, I know that I tried everything I can and the other 20 people will live, but not because I took someone else's life.
I don't even know if this makes sense (especially the second paragraph), but I'm starting to try these kinds of questions now, so that in the amazing occurrence that I get an interview for medicine at JCU (I haven't even applied yet. I know, I'm a freak who over plans things.), I won't have to stress out about it then. Hah.